The building or dwelling unit shall be tested and verified as having an air leakage rate of not exceeding 5 air changes per hour in Climate Zones 1 and 2, and 3 air changes per hour in Climate Zones 3 through 8. Testing shall be conducted with a blower door at a pressure of 0.2 inches w.g. (50 Pascals). Where required by the code official, testing shall be conducted by an approved third party. A written report of the results of the test shall be signed by the party conducting the test and provided to the code official. Testing shall be performed at any time after creation of all penetrations of the building thermal envelope.
1. Exterior windows and doors, fireplace and stove doors shall be closed, but not sealed, beyond the intended weatherstripping or other infiltration control measures;
2. Dampers including exhaust, intake, makeup air, backdraft and flue dampers shall be closed, but not sealed beyond intended infiltration control measures;
3. Interior doors, if installed at the time of the test, shall be open;
4. Exterior doors for continuous ventilation systems and heat recovery ventilators shall be closed and sealed;
5. Heating and cooling systems, if installed at the time of the test, shall be turned off; and
6. Supply and return registers, if installed at the time of the test, shall be fully open.
New wood-burning fireplaces shall have tight-fitting flue dampers and outdoor combustion air.
R402.4.3 Fenestration air leakage.
Windows, skylights and sliding glass doors shall have an air infiltration rate of no more than 0.3 cfm per square foot (1.5 L/s/m2), and swinging doors no more than 0.5 cfm per square foot (2.6 L/s/m2), when tested according to NFRC 400 or AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440 by an accredited, independent laboratory and listed and labeled by the manufacturer.
Exception: Site-built windows, skylights and doors.
R402.4.4 Recessed lighting.
Recessed luminaires installed in the building thermal envelope shall be sealed to limit air leakage between conditioned and unconditioned spaces. All recessed luminaires shall be IC-rated and labeled as having an air leakage rate not more than 2.0 cfm (0.944 L/s) when tested in accordance with ASTM E 283 at a 1.57 psf (75 Pa) pressure differential. All recessed luminaires shall be sealed with a gasket or caulk between the housing and the interior wall or ceiling covering.
R402.5 Maximum fenestration U-factor and SHGC (Mandatory).
The area-weighted average maximum fenestration U-factor permitted using tradeoffs from Section R402.1.4 or R405 shall be 0.48 in Climate Zones 4 and 5 and 0.40 in Climate Zones 6 through 8 for vertical fenestration, and 0.75 in Climate Zones 4 through 8 for skylights. The area-weighted average maximum fenestration SHGC permitted using tradeoffs from Section R405 in Climate Zones 1 through 3 shall be 0.50.
SECTION R403 SYSTEMS
R403.1 Controls (Mandatory).
At least one thermostat shall be provided for each separate heating and cooling system.
R403.1.1 Programmable thermostat.
Where the primary heating system is a forced-air furnace, at least one thermostat per dwelling unit shall be capable of controlling the heating and cooling system on a daily schedule to maintain different temperature set points at different times of the day. This thermostat shall include the capability to set back or temporarily operate the system to maintain zone temperatures down to 55°F (13°C) or up to 85°F (29°C). The thermostat shall initially be programmed with a heating temperature set point no higher than 70°F (21°C) and a cooling temperature set point no lower than 78°F (26°C).
R403.1.2 Heat pump supplementary heat (Mandatory).
Heat pumps having supplementary electric-resistance heat shall have controls that, except during defrost, prevent supplemental heat operation when the heat pump compressor can meet the heating load.
Ducts and air handlers shall be in accordance with Sections R403.2.1 through R403.2.3.
R403.2.1 Insulation (Prescriptive).
Supply ducts in attics shall be insulated to a minimum of R-8. All other ducts shall be insulated to a minimum of R-6.
Exception: Ducts or portions thereof located completely inside the building thermal envelope.
R403.2.2 Sealing (Mandatory).
Ducts, air handlers, and filter boxes shall be sealed. Joints and seams shall comply with either the International Mechanical Code or International Residential Code, as applicable.
1. Air-impermeable spray foam products shall be permitted to be applied without additional joint seals.
2. Where a duct connection is made that is partially inaccessible, three screws or rivets shall be equally spaced on the exposed portion of the joint so as to prevent a hinge effect.
3. Continuously welded and locking-type longitudinal joints and seams in ducts operating at static pressures less than 2 inches of water column (500 Pa) pressure classification shall not require additional closure systems.
Duct tightness shall be verified by either of the following:
1. Postconstruction test: Total leakage shall be less than or equal to 4 cfm (113.3 L/min) per 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area when tested at a pressure differential of 0.1 inches w.g. (25 Pa) across the entire system, including the manufacturer’s air handler enclosure. All register boots shall be taped or otherwise sealed during the test.
2. Rough-in test: Total leakage shall be less than or equal to 4 cfm (113.3 L/min) per 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area when tested at a pressure differential of 0.1 inches w.g. (25 Pa) across the system, including the manufacturer’s air handler enclosure. All registers shall be taped or otherwise sealed during the test. If the air handler is not installed at the time of the test, total leakage shall be less than or equal to 3 cfm (85 L/min) per 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area.
Exception: The total leakage test is not required for ducts and air handlers located entirely within the building thermal envelope.
R403.2.2.1 Sealed air handler.
Air handlers shall have a manufacturer’s designation for an air leakage of no more than 2 percent of the design air flow rate when tested in accordance with ASHRAE 193.
R403.2.3 Building cavities (Mandatory).
Building framing cavities shall not be used as ducts or plenums.
R403.3 Mechanical system piping insulation (Mandatory).
Mechanical system piping capable of carrying fluids above 105°F (41°C) or below 55°F (13°C) shall be insulated to a minimum of R-3.
R403.3.1 Protection of piping insulation.
Piping insulation exposed to weather shall be protected from damage, including that caused by sunlight, moisture, equipment maintenance, and wind, and shall provide shielding from solar radiation that can cause degradation of the material. Adhesive tape shall not be permitted.
R403.4 Service hot water systems.
Energy conservation measures for service hot water systems shall be in accordance with Sections R403.4.1 and R403.4.2.
R403.4.1 Circulating hot water systems (Mandatory).
Circulating hot water systems shall be provided with an automatic or readily accessible manual switch that can turn off the hot-water circulating pump when the system is not in use.
R403.4.2 Hot water pipe insulation (Prescriptive).
Insulation for hot water pipe with a minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of R-3 shall be applied to the following:
1. Piping larger than 3/4 inch nominal diameter.
2. Piping serving more than one dwelling unit.
3. Piping from the water heater to kitchen outlets.
4. Piping located outside the conditioned space.
5. Piping from the water heater to a distribution manifold.
6. Piping located under a floor slab.
7. Buried piping.
8. Supply and return piping in recirculation systems other than demand recirculation systems.
9. Piping with run lengths greater than the maximum run lengths for the nominal pipe diameter given in Table R403.4.2.
All remaining piping shall be insulated to at least R-3 or meet the run length requirements of Table R403.4.2.